Wednesday, February 8, 2012

TRIZ


1. "TRIZ":
a way to get ideas
--  about  --
future technologies

. . . But why call it TRIZ?


. . . . . . because "TRIZ"
            stands for:
           Теория
           решения
           изобретательских
           задач


. . . . . . . . . (of course!
                  What else
                  could it be?)


. . . . . . transliteration:
           Teoriya
           Resheniya
           Izobretatelskikh
           Zadatch


. . . . . .direct translation (more or less):
           Theory of
           Solutions to
           Invention
           Problems


. . . . . .typical translation:
           Theory of
           Inventive 
           Problem
           Solving


. . . TRIZ
      a systematic way
      to get new ideas
      about technology


. . . TRIZ was created by
      Genrich Altshuller (pronunciation)
         (1926-1998)




















(Image source: marketada.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/altshuller.bmp)


. . . . . . He registered
            his first invention
            at age 15


. . . . . . At 20 he invented
            a way to escape
            from submarines


. . . . . . . . . (This did not help
                  the crew of
                  the Kursk)


. . . . . . . . . . . . length:
                        154 meters
                        How long is that?








. . . . . . . . . . . . (just under 1/10 mile)


. . . . . . . . . . . . height:
                        four stories

                       (not quite as tall as
                       the EIT building)                                                    


. . . . . . . . . . . . The Kursk
                        was the world's
                        biggest attack submarine


. . . . . . . . . . .  on August 12, 2000 a fuel explosion
                       sank it


                       (Altschuller had died in 1998)

                       Hitting the sea bottom
                       caused torpedoes
                       to explode


                       Some crew
                       survived both explosions
                       but perished later
                       without escaping


                      Goodbye notes
                      were found

       Part of salvaged wreck of
               K-141 Kursk
(Source: englishrussia.com/images/kursk_submarine/1.jpg)


(Source: englishrussia.com/images/kursk_submarine/7.jpg)



A much smaller sub
is docked across the
river and open for
public visits

. . . . . . Altshuller worked as
            an invention inspector
            for the Soviet navy



2. TRIZ is a compendium
    of several related
    methods and approaches




Source: http://www.amsup.com/images/triz/triz.gif
(available at http://web.archive.org/web/20120307030924/http://www.amsup.com/images/triz/triz.gif)


Let's do a quick web search on:
TRIZ

See triz.org 
for a video

See triz.org > triz > What is Triz?
      Some basic starting points are described

Some other videos:



. . . also see
www.mazur.net/triz/contradi.htm
      (full table)
(e.g. www.mazur.net/triz/contra02.gif):

. . .one of the best is here)
     Complete table is 
        39x39 engineering parameters

. . .interior cells list engineering principles
. . . . . .for resolving the conflict

Automated lookup interface:
http://triz40.com/
    ...because 40 principles of invention
    ......in addition to the 39x39 table

Example:
. . .cans

. . .want to improve parameter #4?
. . . . . ."length of nonmoving object"
. . . . . .why might we want that?
. . . . . .what problems might be caused?


. . .conflicts include #11:
. . . . . ."tension, pressure"
. . . . . .(wall is now weaker
. . . . . .in the middle)

. . .solutions are:
. . . . . .principles of invention:
           1, 14, 35
           (40 of them)

. . .principle 1:
. . . . . .Segment it
           make can shorter
           make lots of little walls
                  (corrugate it)
           put circular ridges

. . .principle 14:
. . . . . .Spheroidality
           (add curvature)
           round the edges
         
           cars use curved sheet metal
           a flat strip is very bendable!

. . .principle 35:
. . . . . .change physical or chemical state

           use a stronger metal alloy

           use thicker & heavier sheet metal

. . .Let's try another one together:
. . . . . .need to pick an object
. . . . . .pick a row for improvement
. . . . . .pick a column showing conflict
. . . . . .identify cell with principles
. . . . . .look up the principles of invention
. . . . . .apply them!
(for example, cell phone repairability, or battery capacity, or whatever we want)

We could break into groups of 2-3-4...
     Each try one
     Then report to class
          Use 
               table of improvement+conflicts
               list of principles      
         
===========================================================
Background: recall
The table of 
39 characteristics
that may be improved
and may conflict

    . . . (see e.g.
    http://www.triz40.com/aff_Matrix_TRIZ.php)

Recall: 
What are the 
40 Principles of Invention
in TRIZ?

. . . (see e.g.
      http://www.triz40.com/aff_Principles.htm)

We considered these
     ...for resolving engineering conflicts
     ...from the table

We can also think about them 
    ....with respect to the 
        evolution of any technology. . . 


    For example:
    consider some 
    inventions that 
    have room to grow

        E-readers
        CFLs/LEDs/lighting in general
        Smartphones
        Home robots
        Gaming devices
        or pick anything you like

(Source: http://inshadesofscarlet.blogspot.com/#!/2010/09/lightbulbs-seriously.html

We could apply various of the 40 principles to each of these

Another idea:
   Do this with 
   a device or technology 
   of specific interest 
   to each person

(Example: 
your project topic)


1) "Segmentation":
break something unitary
into parts, modules, pieces, etc.

E.g. replace large truck
with a
tractor+trailer design
(is that good?)


2) "Taking out":
remove a part


E.g. put a
noisy air compressor
outside the building
where the air is used


E.g. Use the
bark but not the dog
as part of a burglar alarm


3) "Local Quality":
make something that is
uniform, nonuniform


E.g. refrigerator with
freezer,
moist cold bin for veggies,
dry cold bin for meat, etc.


4) "Assymetry":
make something that is
symmetric, assymetric


E.g. make a round rod
have a flat part
so a knob can
turn it without slipping


5) "Merging":
assemble similar objects
into a larger assembly

E.g. make a
network of PCs


E.g. 3 wheels are
more stable than 2 are
more stable than 1


You can get
"emergent properties"!


6)"Universality":
make one thing
do more than one thing


E.g. pencil can
erase,
store,
attach
as well as write


7) "Nested Doll":
(like those Russian dolls)


E.g. set of measuring spoons


8) "Anti-weight":
counter heaviness
with flotation


E.g. non-sinking boats;
balloons;
airplane wings and
boat hydrofoils


9) "Preliminary anti-action":
counter bad effects
of good things
ahead of time


E.g. lead aprons at the dentist


E.g. slow-release medications


10) "Preliminary action":
do something to an object
before it is needed


E.g. put glue on paper before selling it




. . . Stickers!
. . . Tape!


E.g. sterilize surgical instruments
for next time - autoclaves, etc.


11) "Beforehand cushioning":
have backup systems
present in case of failure


E.g. emergency parachutes,
fire escapes,
parking brakes


12) "Equipotentiality":
compensate for gravity


E.g. spring-loaded
cafeteria dish dispenser


13) "The other way round":
reverse the action;
go upside down;
make something fixed, movable
make something movable, fixed


E.g. rotate part instead of tool;
treadmills;
escalators


14) "Spheroidality":
change from
flat or angular
surfaces
to curved


E.g. domes and arches;
ball-point pens instead of quills


15) "Dynamics":
make it
movable
or
flexible


E.g. adjustable car seats;
medical scopes in flexible tubes


16) "Partial or excessive actions":
Do a little too much or too little, then fix


E.g. put a bit too much on your plate,
then leave a little;

almost fill your tank,
then top off


17). . . . . . "Another dimension":
use the 3rd dimension or 4th, etc.


E.g. 3D TV;
add wings to car;
2-sided screen;
double toothbrush;
dump truck


18) "Mechanical vibration":
cause oscillation/vibration


E.g. electric hedge trimmer/carving knife;
gall stone destruction;
ultrasonic neurostimulation


19) "Periodic action":
keep repeating


E.g. hitting nail with hammer;
warbling siren


20) "Continuity of useful action":
eliminate breaks


E.g. night light;
auto time sharing
(zip cars)


21) "Skipping":
do it so fast
that harm is averted


E.g. flash freezing;
heated ice cream scoop


22) "Turn Lemons into Lemonade":
use bad effect
for a good purpose


E.g. make/save money
by recycling
. . . (reuse blank side; sell cans)


23) "Feedback": improve performance by examining the effects


E.g. hard to spend
UALR budgeted money
in late spring;
cruise control


24) "Intermediary": link/separate 2 things with a go-between


E.g. potholder;
nailset;
shuttle diplomacy


25) "Self-service":
something serves itself


E.g. fertilize with grass clippings;
mow the leaves instead of raking
pot liquor to improve flavor


26) "Copying":
save with inexpensive copies


E.g. VR instead of reality;
photos;
music on CD instead of live, etc.


27) "Cheap short-lived objects": throw it away afterwards


E.g. paper plates;
disposable diapers;
anyone remember returnable bottles?


28) "Mechanics substitution":
get rid of moving parts or other objects


E.g. CD instead of vinyl record
. . . (what next? After that?);
acoustic pet fence


29) "Pneumatics and hydraulics":
use gas or liquid
instead of solid parts


E.g. gel-filled footwear soles;
natural gas instead of logs


30) "Flexible shells and thin films":
get rid of heavy, solid things


E.g. paper instead of slates;
whiteboard wall covering
instead of solid slate blackboards;
balloons


31) "Porous materials": make nonporous things, porous


E.g. save weight by making it fluffier


32) "Color changes":
change color or transparency
of object or environment


E.g. use red light to
see nocturnal critters
in a zoo


E.g. use differently colored markers
for writing


33) "Homogeneity":
make interacting objects of the same material


E.g. cut diamonds
with diamond dust

E.g. make artificial organs
out of person's own cells


34) "Discarding and recovering":
it disappears or changes itself


E.g. biodegradable plastic bags;



35). . . . . . "Parameter changes":
change properties of a substance


E.g. heat food to cook/kill germs


36) "Phase transitions":


E.g. freeze liquid center,
then dip in warm chocolate

E.g. air conditioning works
by vaporizing/condensing
a liquid


37) "Thermal expansion":
things expand/contract with temperature


E.g. make thermostats that
bend and curve
as temperature changes


38) "Strong oxidants":
use oxygen-enrichment


E.g. medical use;
match heads;
rocket fuel


39) "Inert atmosphere": use chemically inactive stuff


E.g. store priceless artifacts
in argon or nitrogen


E.g. add filler
when making pills
so you can pick them up


40) "Composite materials":
use multiple materials in a substance


E.g. fiberglass;
reinforced concrete



People could work another example individually...
       Recall -
               table of improvement+conflicts
               list of principles      



3. Other aspects of TRIZ
- (can also apply to
your project topics)

. . . One aspect:
the natural evolution
from doing one key task
and "branching out"

. . . . . . first pencils wrote

            then they "branched out"

                soon they erased, too

                and clipped on

                and stored

                and didn't need sharpening

                and arguably even

                     used ink not lead

                     stored documents

                     will play videos


. . . . . . From keyboards
            to foldup keyboards,
            ergonomic keyboards,
            what other kinds?



. . . . . . How have
            cell phones
            branched out?



. . . . . . This also explains
            "bloatware"


. . . . . . Have cars branched out?


. . . . . . Can you think of
            something that
            has not
            branched out much?



4. Also from TRIZ:
usability,
aesthetics
become factors later


. . . Early cars:
"you can get any color car
you want as long as it's black"


Example, anyone?





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